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Zhang Wuji
The Heaven Sword and Dragon Saber character
Created byJin Yong
In-universe information
GenderMale
Affiliation
  • Ming Cult
  • Wudang School
Family
  • Zhang Cuishan (father)
  • Yin Susu (mother)
  • Xie Xun (godfather)
Masters
  • Zhang Cuishan
  • Yin Susu
  • Xie Xun
  • Zhang Sanfeng
Zhang Wuji
Traditional Chinese張無忌
Simplified Chinese张无忌
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinZhāng Wújì
Yue: Cantonese
JyutpingZoeng1 Mou4-gei6

Zhang Wuji (張無忌; Zhāng Wújì) is the fictional protagonist of the wuxia novel The Heaven Sword and Dragon Saber by Jin Yong.

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Fictional character biography[edit]

Zhang Wuji's parents are from opposing sides of the wulin (martial artists' community). His father, Zhang Cuishan, is an apprentice of Zhang Sanfeng, the highly respected leader of the "orthodox" Wudang School; his mother, Yin Susu, is the daughter of Yin Tianzheng, the chief of the "evil" Heavenly Eagle Cult. Zhang Wuji was born on a reclusive volcanic island, where he spent his childhood with only his parents and his godfather, Xie Xun. When he was about ten years old, his parents brought him back to tát Đài Loan Trung Quốc and they soon found themselves the target of several martial artists trying to tát force them to tát reveal the whereabouts of Xie Xun, who possesses the highly coveted Dragon-Slaying Saber. His parents refused to tát betray Xie Xun and took their own lives.

The orphaned Zhang Wuji is initially mortally wounded but he wanders into an isolated valley by chance and discovers the long-lost Nine Yang Manual. He masters the inner energy skills described in the book, uses them to tát heal himself and becomes a formidable martial artist in the process. Later on, he helps to tát resolve the conflict between the "evil" Ming Cult and the six major "orthodox" schools, which are bent on destroying the cult. He earns the respect of the cult's members and becomes its leader after mastering the skill "Heaven and Earth Great Shift". He reforms the cult and helps to tát mend its relations with other schools.

Throughout his adventures, Zhang Wuji gets romantically involved with four maidens: Yin Li (Zhu'er), Xiaozhao, Zhou Zhiruo and Zhao Min. Yin Li turns out to tát be Zhang Wuji's maternal cousin. Even though at that time cousin marriage is allowed, the one Yin Li loves is the teenage Zhang Wuji, not the grown up Zhang Wuji. Meanwhile Xiaozhao has to tát return to tát Persia to tát succeed her mother as the Persian Ming Cult's leader.

Although Zhou Zhiruo is in love with Zhang Wuji, she has no choice but to tát turn against him because she is bound by an oath she made to tát her martial arts master, Abbess Miejue of the Emei School, who hates anyone related to tát the Ming Cult. Before her death, Miejue devises a vicious scheme for Zhou Zhiruo to tát seize the Dragon-Slaying Saber and Heaven-Reliant Sword by exploiting Zhang Wuji's love for her apprentice. Zhou Zhiruo secretly carries out this plan and attempts to tát push the blame to tát Zhao Min. Later, she turns vicious after Zhang Wuji publicly embarrasses her by abandoning her for Zhao Min just as she and Zhang Wuji are about to tát be married.

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Zhao Min is a Mongol princess and formerly Zhang Wuji's arch-rival as she keeps thwarting his plans to tát improve the Ming Cult's relations with the "orthodox" schools. However, Zhang Wuji still succeeds in gaining the trust of nearly all the "orthodox" schools. Although they start off on opposing sides, they gradually fall in love, and Zhao Min reluctantly turns against her fellow Mongols to tát help Zhang Wuji.

Towards the over of the novel, Zhang Wuji saves Xie Xun, who has been captured, and exposes the truth behind the causes of the conflicts between the Ming Cult and the "orthodox" schools. He becomes a key figure in leading the wulin and rebel forces to tát overthrow the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty, but decides to tát retire from the wulin after mistakenly believing that the Ming Cult's members are plotting to tát betray him. He decides that Zhao Min is his true love and they leave to tát lead a reclusive life far away from society.

Jin Yong's evaluation of Zhang Wuji[edit]

In the afterword of the novel, the author Jin Yong explains that Zhang Wuji has less heroic traits compared to tát Guo Jing and Yang Guo, the protagonists of the first two books in the Condor Trilogy, and he has a fair share of strengths and weaknesses. His personality is strongly influenced by social factors and people around him, and he has no chance of escaping from harsh reality most of the time. Although he chooses Zhao Min in the over, his love life is in a mess as he is very indecisive on which of the four maidens he truly loves. He may be a formidable martial artist just lượt thích Guo Jing and Yang Guo, but he is not suited to tát lead a martial arts school. On a personal level, he is sincere and self-sacrificing towards his followers, but he lacks the ambition and decisiveness that would enable him to tát remain in power. In fact, he only becomes the Ming Cult's leader because he is eager to tát please his followers, who insist that he leads them after he saves their lives.[1]

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Martial arts and skills[edit]

Throughout the novel, Zhang Wuji becomes the most powerful martial artist of his time. Below are the martial arts and skills he possesses:

  • Medicine and toxicology: Zhang Wuji learnt medicine and toxicology from the reclusive physician Hu Qingniu and his wife, Wang Nangu, when he is staying in Butterfly Valley to tát recover from his injuries in his childhood.
  • Wudang Long Fist (武當長拳; wǔdāng chángquán) and Cloud Ascending Ladder (梯雲縱; tīyúnzòng) are among the fundamental skills of the Wudang School. Zhang Wuji learnt them from his father in his childhood.
  • Seven Injuries Fist (七傷拳; qīshāngquán) is the Kongtong School's signature skill. It allows the user to tát inflict severe internal injuries on an opponent at the cost of long-term damage to tát the user's internal organs as the user progresses from one stage to tát the next. In his childhood, Zhang Wuji learnt the verses from his godfather, who had stolen the manual from the Kongtong School. He practises the skill after he has learnt the Nine Yang Divine Skill, which protects him from damaging his internal organs.
  • Nine Yang Divine Skill (九陽神功; jiǔyáng shéngōng) is an inner energy skill that can heal internal injuries and boost internal strength. It was written in the Nine Yang Manual, which was stolen from the Shaolin School and lost at the over of The Return of the Condor Heroes. The Shaolin, Wudang and Emei schools each has an incomplete version of the manual. Zhang Wuji finds the long-lost manual by chance and uses it to tát learn the skill, healing himself completely and building up immense internal strength, which allowed him to tát learn advanced skills later.
  • Heaven and Earth Great Shift (乾坤大挪移; qiánkūn dànuóyí) is the most powerful of all the Ming Cult's skills and only the leader can learn it. It allows the user to tát sense the inner energy flow in oneself and others, as well as translocate and redirect energy from one place to tát another. The skill requires decades of practice to tát progress from one stage to tát the next, and the user has to tát remain highly focused during practice or else he/she may sustain severe internal injuries and die. Zhang Wuji discovers the manual when he is trapped in a secret chamber with Xiaozhao, and manages to tát master the skill within hours because the Nine Yang Divine Skill has already equipped him with a strong inner energy foundation.
  • Dragon Claw Hand (龍爪手; lóngzháoshǒu): Zhang Wuji learnt this from the Shaolin monk Kongxing during their fight at Bright Peak by using the Heaven and Earth Great Shift to tát sense Kongxing's inner energy flow and figure out the counter-moves.
  • Taiji Fist (太極拳; tàijíquán) and Taiji Swordplay (太極劍法; tàijí jiànfǎ) are two skills created by Zhang Sanfeng. They operate on principles contradictory to tát conventional martial arts: instead of relying on tốc độ, power and preemption, their moves are slow, "soft" and seemingly powerless. However, the true essence of these skills is to tát redirect an opponent's energy and momentum against him, and counterattack with minimal exhaustion on the user's part. Zhang Wuji learnt this skills after observing Zhang Sanfeng demonstrate them.
  • The Holy Flame Tablets (聖火令; shènghuǒlìng) are sacred artefacts of the Ming Cult. Engraved on them in Persian are some martial arts verses allegedly created by Hassan-i Sabbah. Zhang Wuji manages to tát seize the tablets from the Persian messengers, and masters the skills after Xiaozhao translates for him. As these skills were originally designed for assassin suicide attacks, they cause Zhang Wuji to tát experience a momentary nervous breakdown when he is using them to tát counter the Shaolin monks' Vajra Evil-Subduing Ring. He recovers only after hearing his godfather chanting the Diamond Sutra, which helps to tát counter the repressing effects on him.

In film and television[edit]

Notable actors who have portrayed Zhang Wuji in films and television series include Derek Yee (1978), Adam Cheng (1978), Tony Leung (1986), Jet Li (1993), Steve Ma (1994), Lawrence Ng (2000), Alec Su (2003), Deng Chao (2009), Zeng Shunxi (2019) and Raymond Lam (2022).

Family tree[edit]

  • v
  • t
  • e

Zhang Wuji's family tree

Yin Tianzheng
Yin YewangYin SusuZhang CuishanChaghan Temür
Yin LiZhang WujiZhao MinKöke Temür
Notes:

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  • (in Chinese) Tan, Xianmao (2005). Zhang Wuji: Kind, Forgiving and Accommodating. In Rankings of Jin Yong's Characters. Chinese Agricultural Press.